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Category: Raspberry Pi

RF Spectrum Sweep

RF Spectrum Sweep

Identifying RF Channels to monitor can be a time consuming effort. Using a standard non PC radio receiver can take a long time to identify a transmitting channel. Using RTL_Power and SDR FFT Spectrum Logging provided here (http://kmkeen.com/rtl-power/), makes the effort less challenging. RTL_Power will sweep through a range of radio frequencies at given steps and log the RF power levels detected by the USB SDR receiver. It does this over and over at set intervals to create a log…

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RTL-SDR Radio Scanner

RTL-SDR Radio Scanner

In this post I’ll be giving some background and install steps on RTL-SDR. SDR stands for software defined radio and has been in use since the 1970s. Traditional radio processing is handled by hardware components like oscillators, regulators, and mixers. SDR replaces these functions with digital computer processing. RTL-SDR is a device that was originally designed to receive digital television transmissions, namely DVB-T TV using the RTL2832U chipset. The device is typically contained in a USB dongle. The RTL2832U chipset…

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Decoding DTMF with MultiMon-NG

Decoding DTMF with MultiMon-NG

Dual Tone Multi Frequency signaling, commonly referred to as DTMF, is mainly used for phone dialing systems. But this isn’t the only use for DTMF signaling. Another common use is security access systems. In this post, I’ll be covering how to decode DTMF using MultiMon-NG. SoX will be used to record the DTMF signals generated on cell phones and keyless entry systems. I’ll be using a high gain directional microphone with a secondary microphone to cancel out background noise. SoX…

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Noise Cancelled Microphone with SoX

Noise Cancelled Microphone with SoX

In this post I’ll be using two USB microphones to record audio, one for the intended sounds I wanted to record, the other to capture background noise that I want to filter out. I’m using two cheap USB embedded microphones that I bought for less than $10 each, http://a.co/eIsnp3Z. The machine I’m recording on is a Raspberry Pi 3 running Ubnutu Mate. Since the Raspberry Pi doesn’t have an audio in device built in, I selected the USB microphones. These…

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Noise Filtering with SoX

Noise Filtering with SoX

In this post I’ll cover how to remove noise in an audio file using SoX. I’ll be using a Raspberry Pi which does not have an audio input by default. To get audio, I used an simple USB audio microphone to capture audio. The OS I’m running on my Pi is Ubuntu Mate and there was no need for anything to get the microphone to run. Once it was plugged in, I ran this command to view the properties of…

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Generating DTMF with SoX

Generating DTMF with SoX

In this post I’ll show how SoX can generate DTMF, (Dual-tone multi-frequency signaling) which is commonly used in phone and security systems. These dual tone signals are the foundation from which digital communications are based. The technology around DTMF is not complex. Lets cover the history of DTMF. DTMF was developed by Bell Labs and put in production in the early 1960’s. It was mostly used to replace pulse dialing systems that had limits on how far a phone could…

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SoX Noise Generation

SoX Noise Generation

In my last post I suggested creating noise and using a band of it to fill in a band gap. SoX provides a way to generate noise. There are different types of noise that SoX will generate. Lets take a moment to look at these types and what applications noise generation is used for. There are 3 main types of noise that SoX will generate, they are white, pink, and brown. White noise is a random signal that has equal…

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Sox Band-Pass and Band-Reject Filtering

Sox Band-Pass and Band-Reject Filtering

SoX provides many filters to process audio data. In this post I’ll be covering how to apply pass or reject filtering of frequency bands, commonly referred to as band-pass or band-reject. This filter will take a frequency or a range of frequencies and either remove them from an audio file or remove all other frequencies while keeping only them. I’ll cover 5 filters available in SoX that do this type of audio processing. Here is some information about each of…

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SoX – An Introduction

SoX – An Introduction

SoX, short for Sound eXchange, is a command line utility that can convert audio data into other formats. It can also apply various effects, play, record, mix, and filter the audio data. Refer to the development website, http://sox.sourceforge.net/. In a previous post I used it to create a spectrogram of an audio file using this command. sox audio-in.wav -n spectrogram Lets start with basic play operation. SoX can play audio data through the command line using the play command, here…

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Spectrograms with FFMpeg

Spectrograms with FFMpeg

In this post I’ll be covering how to create image files that represent the sound levels and frequencies of a media file. These images are known as spectrograms. They provide a way to visually locate moments in time. This can be useful for a number of reasons. FFMpeg has a feature that lets us create spectrograms with the showspectrumpic filter. Details about this filter can be found here, https://ffmpeg.org/ffmpeg-filters.html#showspectrumpic. You can also get information about the filter by typing in…

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